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Habitat and Biodiversity Modeler (HBM)

 

The Habitat and Biodiversity Modeler (HBM) is a toolset designed for Conservation GIS professionals. It provides tools for the modeling of species distributions, habitat assessment, habitat change and gap analysis, biodiversity analysis, and the planning of reserves and biological corridors.

At the species level, HBM provides a wide variety of options for the modeling of species distributions based on observed locations and bioclimatic variables. Options are provided for presence only data (Mahalanobis Typicality and MaxEnt), presence/absence (Logistic Regression and a Multi- Layer Perceptron neural network) and abundance data (Multiple Regression). For individual species, the Habitat Assessment tool allows the mapping of primary and secondary habitat as well as potential corridor areas. Facilities are also provided for the assessment of habitat change and gaps in the protection system.

HBM’s Biodiversity tab provides a special utility for working with the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) Red List of Threatened Species database. Subsets of species ranges can be extracted based on the Red List threat level, location and endemicity. Given a set of extracted ranges (typically hundreds to thousands of ranges), maps of alpha diversity, gamma diversity, beta diversity, Sorensen’s dissimilarity, and range restriction can be generated.

 

Habitat and Biodiversity Modeler

The Habitat and Biodiversity Modeler (HBM) includes a wide range of tools for habitat assessment and species distribution/ biodiversity modeling. In this illustration, the IUCN Red List species database for terrestrial mammals (freely available on line) was scanned to extract the range polygons of species endemic to South America. Once extracted, the polygons were then used to create a map of frequency using the alpha diversity mapping option.

At the landscape level, a facility is provided for landscape pattern analysis that maps normalized entropy, relative richness, edge density, patch area and patch compactness. In cases where land cover maps from two dates are available, the process of change can be mapped. For example, a landscape may not be particularly fragmented, but may be actively fragmenting. Other processes that can be detected include deformation, perforation, shift, shrinkage, enlargement, attrition, aggregation, creation and dissection.

For planning, tools are provided for biological corridor analysis and reserve planning. The corridor tool allows you to specify the target width and number of branches as well as produce maps of development suitability and conservation value. It then maps corridors of least biological risk. For reserve planning, we have provided an integrated interface to the well-known Marxan reserve planning tool.